UBD Library builds its collection based on the teaching, learning and research needs of the university. There are over 600,000 items in print and electronic formats. The majority of the collection are in English, and about 20 percent are in Malay and the rest are in other languages.
The Special Collections are kept at the Brunei Studies Collection, which is home to the library's rare books, manuscripts, and the University publications and archives. Some of them had been selected and digitized for the Bruneiana Digital Collections. As of 2016, UBD Library has created 94 digitized collections that are accessible online, with items ranging from local and Borneo collections, UBD publications and past year exam papers, rare books, and manuscripts.